Soil Salinity/Soil Sodicity
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The Soil and Terrain database for Nepal primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Nepal). SOTER_Nepal is generalized from the original Soils and Terrain database of Nepal at scale 1:50,000 compiled by FAO and Nepal's Survey Dept. The SOTER_Nepal database provides generalized information on landform and soil properties at a scale 1:1 million. It consists of 17 SOTER units, ... characterized by 56 representative and four synthetic profiles for which there are no measured soil data. The SOTER database includes also attribute data of 99 profiles initially selected as references to soil components that have already a representative profile. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC and FAO to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts
This harmonized, gridded global data set of soil parameter estimates includes files listing: (1) soil parameter estimates for the component soil units of each terrestrial grid cell, in un-binned format, and (2) soil parameter estimates aggregated or binned into a number of predefined classes. The spatial data, with a resolution of ½ by ½ degree, was derived from the ISRIC-WISE soil database. The land surface between longitudes -180o W and +180o E and latitudes +90o N and -90o S has been characterized using 45948 unique map units; each of these can comprise from one to ten soil units, characterized according to the original legend of the 1:5 million scale Soil Map of the World (FAO-Unesco 1974). Soil parameter estimates for each of these units were derived from analyses of some 9600 profiles held in a working copy of WISE (ver. 2.0). Twenty-two soil variables, identified as being useful for agro-ecological zoning, land evaluation, crop growth simulation, modelling of soil gaseous emissions and analyses of global environmental change, were considered. Parameter estimates for the topsoil (0-30 cm) and the subsoil (30-100 cm) are presented for the following variables: content of organic carbon, total nitrogen, the C/N ratio, pH(H2O), CECsoil, CECclay, base saturation, total exchangeable bases, aluminum saturation, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), electrical conductivity of saturated paste (ECe), calcium carbonate content, gypsum content, content of sand, silt and clay, content of fragments less than 2 mm, bulk density, total porosity. For soil drainage class, effective soil depth, and available water capacity (-10 to -1500 kPa), however, parameter estimates are presented on a profile basis. The parameter estimates - median values - presented here should be seen as best estimates; possible types and sources of uncertainty are discussed in the report. The data are considered appropriate for exploratory studies at global scale (greater than 1:5 000 000). Note: A more recent assessment, at a resolution of 30arcsec (WISE30sec), is available at: http://data.isric.org/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/dc7b283a-8f19-45e1-aaed-e9bd515119bc
The Soil and Terrain database for Malawi (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million, was compiled based on the soil map of Malawi at scale 1:250,000 (compiled by the Land Resources Evaluation Project) that was complemented with soil boundary information from the provisional soil map at scale 1:1 million. The 90m SRTM-DEM was used to define the various landform types of the SOTER units and also to adjust their boundaries. The SOTER map units were attributed with soil information obtained from the Africa Soil Profiles Database. The SOTER compilation followed the methodology described in the SOTER Procedures Manual Version 2. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts. DOI for dataset (submitted): 10.17027/isric.wdcsoils.20160002
Version 3.1 of the ISRIC-WISE database (WISE3) was compiled from a wide range of soil profile data collected by many soil professionals worldwide. All profiles have been harmonized with respect to the original Legend (1974) and Revised Legend (1988) of FAO-Unesco. Thereby, the primary soil data ─ and any secondary data derived from them ─ can be linked using GIS to the spatial units of the digitized Soil Map of the World as well as more recent digital Soil and Terrain (SOTER) databases through the soil legend code. WISE3 holds selected attribute data for some 10,250 soil profiles, with some 47,800 horizons, from 149 countries. Individual profiles have been sampled, described, and analyzed according to methods and standards in use in the originating countries. There is no uniform set of properties for which all profiles have analytical data, generally because only selected measurements were planned during the original surveys. Methods used for laboratory determinations of specific soil properties vary between laboratories and over time; sometimes, results for the same property cannot be compared directly. WISE3 will inevitably include gaps, being a compilation of legacy soil data derived from traditional soil survey, which can be of a taxonomic, geographic, and soil analytical nature. As a result, the amount of data available for modelling is sometimes much less than expected. Adroit use of the data, however, will permit a wide range of agricultural and environmental applications at a global and continental scale (1:500 000 and broader).
This uniform soil data set for the development of pedotransfer functions was developed at the request of the Global Soil Data Task (GSDT) of the Data and Information System (DIS) of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The necessary chemical and physical soil data have been derived from ISRIC's Soil Information System (ISIS) and the soil CD-ROM of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS). Analytical data were clustered into functional groups based on soil textural class (FAO) and calculated activity of the clay size minerals. Samples from organic and allophanic soils were flagged as separate categories. The file contain analytical data for 131,472 soil samples, originating from 20,920 profiles. Being based on available data, there are several gaps in the measured data
A homogenized, global set of 1,125 soil profiles is presented. These profiles have been extracted from the database developed at ISRIC for a project on "World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials" (WISE), as a contribution to the activities of the Global Soils Data Task Group of IGBP-DIS. The subset consists of a selection of 665 profiles originating from digital data files released by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, Lincoln), 250 profiles obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, Rome), and 210 profiles from the reference collection of the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC, Wageningen). All profiles are georeferenced and classified in the FAO-Unesco Legend whereby they can be linked to the edited and digital version of the FAO-Unesco Soil Map of the World. This data set is being released in the public domain for use by global modellers and other interested scientists. It is envisaged that the data set will be expanded by ISRIC when new, uniform soil profile data become available. Note: a) A more recent version (some 10,000 profiles) of WISE profiles is available at: http://data.isric.org/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/a351682c-330a-4995-a5a1-57ad160e621c (2009) b) For a larger compilation see the WoSIS database: http://isric.org/explore/wosis (2017)
The Soil and Terrain database for China primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). The primary database was compiled using the SOTER methodology. The SOTER unit delineation was based on a raster format of the soil map of China, correlated and converted to FAO’s Revised Legend (1988), in combination with a SOTER landform characterization derived from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM). Reference profiles for the dominant soil of the SOTER units has been directly linked to the polygons. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.
The Soil and Terrain database for Argentina primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Argentina were obtained from the SOTERLAC database (ver. 2) at scale 1:5 million. This update includes considerable changes in the GIS file, based on the SRTM-DEM derived surface information and on INTA's digital soil map (Instituto de Suelos), and only few changes of the attributes database. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.
This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Brazil. The 1:5M scale Soil and Terrain Database for Latin America and the Caribbean (FAO et al. 1998), provided the basis for the current study. The data set has been prepared for the project on Assessment of soil organic carbon stocks and change at national scale (GEF-SOC), which has the Brazilian Amazon as one of its four case ... study areas. The land surface of Brazil has been characterized using 299 unique SOTER units, corresponding with 839 polygons. The major soils have been described using 584 profiles, selected by national soil experts as being representative for these units. The associated soil analytical data have been derived from soil survey reports. Gaps in the measured soil profile data have been filled using a step-wise procedure which includes three main stages: (1) collating additional measured soil analytical data where available; (2) filling gaps using expert knowledge and common sense; (3) filling the remaining gaps using a scheme of taxotransfer rules. Parameter estimates are presented by soil unit for fixed depth intervals of 0.2 m to 1 m depth for: organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH(H2O), CECsoil, CECclay, base saturation, effective CEC, aluminum saturation, CaCO3 content, gypsum content, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), electrical conductivity of saturated paste (ECe), bulk density, content of sand, silt and clay, content of coarse fragments (less than 2mm), and available water capacity (-33 to -1500 kPa). These attributes have been identified as being useful for agro-ecological zoning, land evaluation, crop growth simulation, modelling of soil carbon stocks and change, and analyses of global environmental change. The current parameter estimates should be seen as best estimates based on the current selection of soil profiles and data clustering procedure. Taxotransfer rules have been flagged to provide an indication of the possible confidence in the derived data. Results are presented as summary files and can be linked to the 1:5 M scale SOTER map in a GIS, through the unique SOTER-unit code. The subset for the Amazon region, the Brazilian GEF-SOC case study area, has been clipped out of the national set using GIS. It includes 193 unique SOTER units, corresponding with 571 mapped polygons. The secondary data set is considered appropriate for studies at the national scale and regional scale (greater than1:5M). Correlation of soil analytical data, however, should be done more rigorously when more detailed scientific work is considered.
The Soil and Terrain database for the Upper Tana River Catchment (version 1.1) (SOTER_UT_v1.1) at scale 1:250,000 was compiled to support the Green Water Credits (GWC) programme by creating a primary SOTER dataset for a hydrology assessment of the basin. The Kenya Soil Survey of the Kenya Agriculture Research Institute(KARI-KSS) and ISRIC-World Soil Information compiled the SOTER_UT dataset ... according to the standard SOTER methodology. The dataset includes both data of the original KENSOTER database (1:1M) for the Upper Tana Catchment and, new SOTER units and soil profile data taken from other, existing soil surveys mainly at scale 100,000 and from more detailed studies. The SOTER database was used for the hydrology assessment of Upper Tana basin using the model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)to quantify the impact of land management practices change in the basin's waterbalance.