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Soil science

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    This global data set shows the spatial distribution of generalized soil classes as defined for IPCC Tier-I level national greenhouse gas inventory assessments. The database was derived from the Harmonized World Soil Data Base (HWSD ver. 1.1, at scale 1:1-1:5 M) and a series of taxotransfer procedures to convert FAO soil classifications (1974, 1985 and 1990 Legend) to the seven default IPCC soil classes: high activity clay (HAC), low activity clay (LAC), Sandy (SAN), Spodic (POD), Volcanic (VOL), wetlands (WET) and Organic (ORG). The resulting GIS database may be used for exploratory assessments at national and broader scale, for regions that lack more detailed soil information; inherent limitations of the data are discussed in the documentation. This dataset has been compiled in the framework of the GEF co-funded 'Carbon Benefits Project: Measuring, modelling and monitoring', Component A ( http://carbonbenefitsproject-compa.colostate.edu/index.htm).

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    Soil information, from the global to the local scale, has often been the one missing biophysical information layer, the absence of which has added to the uncertainties of predicting potentials and constraints for food and fiber production. The lack of reliable and harmonized soil data has considerably hampered land degradation assessments, environmental impact studies and adapted sustainable land management interventions. Recognizing the urgent need for improved soil information worldwide, particularly in the context of the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol for soil carbon measurements and the immediate requirement for the FAO/IIASA Global Agro-ecological Assessment study (GAEZ v3.0), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) took the initiativeof combining the recently collected vast volumes of regional and national updates of soil information with the information already contained within the 1:5,000,000 scale FAOUNESCO Digital Soil Map of the World, into a new comprehensive Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). This database was achieved in partnership with: • ISRIC-World Soil Information together with FAO, which were responsible for the development of regional soil and terrain databases and the WISE soil profile database; • the European Soil Bureau Network, which had recently completed a major update of soil information for Europe and northern Eurasia, and • the Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences which provided the recent 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of China.

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    The Free Brazilian Repository for Open Soil Data – febr, www.ufsm.br/febr – is a centralized repository targeted at storing open soil data and serving it in a standardized and harmonized format. The repository infrastructure was built using open source and/or free (of cost) software, and was primarily designed for the individual management of datasets. A dataset-driven structure helps datasets authors to be properly acknowledged. Moreover, it gives the flexibility to accommodate many types of data of any soil variable. This is accomplished by storing each dataset using a collection of spreadsheets accessible through an online application. Spreadsheets are familiar to any soil scientist, the reason why it is easier to enter, manipulate and visualize soil data in febr. They also facilitate the participation of soil survey experts in the recovery and quality assessment of legacy data. Soil scientists can help in the definition of standards and data management choices through a public discussion forum, febr-forum@googlegroups.com. A comprehensive documentation is available to guide febr maintainers and data contributors. A detailed catalog gives access to the 14 477 soil observations – 42% of them from south and southeastern Brazil – from 232 datasets contained in febr. Global and dataset-specific visualization and search tools and multiple download facilities are available. The latter includes standard file formats and connections with R and QGIS through the febr package. Various products can be derived from data in febr: specialized databases, pedotransfer functions, fertilizer recommendation guides, classification systems, and detailed soil maps. By sharing data through a centralized soil data storing and sharing facility, soil scientists from different fields have the opportunity to increase collaboration and the much needed soil knowledge.

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    Predicted probability in percent per class predicted using the global compilation of soil ground observations. Accuracy assessement of the maps is availble in Hengl et at. (2017) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169748. Data provided as GeoTIFFs with internal compression (co='COMPRESS=DEFLATE'). Measurement units: probability.

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    Sodic soil grade based on WRB soil types and soil pH predicted using the global compilation of soil ground observations. Accuracy assessement of the maps is availble in Hengl et at. (2017) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169748. Data provided as GeoTIFFs with internal compression (co='COMPRESS=DEFLATE'). Measurement units: grade.

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    Gravimetric content of less than X mm soil material in the fine earth fraction* (e.g. X = 0.002 mm as specified in the analytical method description) (g/100g). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018). * The fine earth fraction is generally defined as being less than 2 mm. However, an upper limit of 1 mm was used in the former Soviet Union and its sattelite states (Katchynsky scheme). This has been indicated in the database.

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    Soil moisture content by weight, at tension 6 kPa (pF 1.8) (g/100g). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018)

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    Electrical conductivity (measured in 1: x soil: water solution) in dS/m at 6 standard depths predicted using two sets of Africa soil profiles data. For details see published paper here below (Hengl T., G.B.M. Heuvelink, B. Kempen, J.G.B. Leenaars, M.G. Walsh, K.D. Shepherd, A. Sila, R.A. MacMillan, J. Mendes de Jesus, L.T. Desta, J.E. Tondoh, 2015. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions. PLoS ONE 10(6)

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    Soil pH x 10 in KCl at 7 standard depths (to convert to pH values divide by 10) predicted using the global compilation of soil ground observations. Accuracy assessement of the maps is availble in Hengl et at. (2017) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169748. Data provided as GeoTIFFs with internal compression (co='COMPRESS=DEFLATE'). Measurement units: NA.

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    Larger than Y mm fraction of the fine earth fraction*; Y as specified in the analytical method description (e.g. Y = 0.05 mm to 2 mm*) (g/100g). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018). * The fine earth fraction is generally defined as being less than 2 mm. However, an upper limit of 1 mm was used in the former Soviet Union and its sattelite states (Katchynsky scheme). This has been indicated in the database.