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    Capacity of the fine earth fraction* to hold exchangeable cations, estimated by buffering the soil at 'pH7' (cmol(c)/kg). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018). * The fine earth fraction is generally defined as being less than 2 mm. However, an upper limit of 1 mm was used in the former Soviet Union and its sattelite states (Katchynsky scheme). This has been indicated in the database.

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    Cation exchange capacity (CEC measured in 1 M NH4OAc buffered at pH 7) in cmolc/kg (fine earth) at 6 standard depth intervals predicted using the Africa Soil Profiles Database (AfSP) v1.2. For details see published paper here below (Hengl T., G.B.M. Heuvelink, B. Kempen, J.G.B. Leenaars, M.G. Walsh, K.D. Shepherd, A. Sila, R.A. MacMillan, J. Mendes de Jesus, L.T. Desta, J.E. Tondoh, 2015. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions. PLoS ONE 10(6)

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    Cation exchange capacity of soil in cmolc/kg at 7 standard depths predicted using the global compilation of soil ground observations. Accuracy assessement of the maps is availble in Hengl et at. (2017) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169748. Data provided as GeoTIFFs with internal compression (co='COMPRESS=DEFLATE'). Measurement units: cmolc / kg.

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    Capacity of the fine earth fraction* to hold exchangeable cations, estimated by buffering the soil at 'pH8' (cmol(c)/kg). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018). * The fine earth fraction is generally defined as being less than 2 mm. However, an upper limit of 1 mm was used in the former Soviet Union and its sattelite states (Katchynsky scheme). This has been indicated in the database.

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    Cation exchange capacity ph7 of soil in cmolc/kg at 6 standard depths predicted using the global compilation of soil ground observations. To visualize these layers please use www.soilgrids.org.

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    This harmonized, gridded global data set of soil parameter estimates includes files listing: (1) soil parameter estimates for the component soil units of each terrestrial grid cell, in un-binned format, and (2) soil parameter estimates aggregated or binned into a number of predefined classes. The spatial data, with a resolution of ½ by ½ degree, was derived from the ISRIC-WISE soil database. The land surface between longitudes -180o W and +180o E and latitudes +90o N and -90o S has been characterized using 45948 unique map units; each of these can comprise from one to ten soil units, characterized according to the original legend of the 1:5 million scale Soil Map of the World (FAO-Unesco 1974). Soil parameter estimates for each of these units were derived from analyses of some 9600 profiles held in a working copy of WISE (ver. 2.0). Twenty-two soil variables, identified as being useful for agro-ecological zoning, land evaluation, crop growth simulation, modelling of soil gaseous emissions and analyses of global environmental change, were considered. Parameter estimates for the topsoil (0-30 cm) and the subsoil (30-100 cm) are presented for the following variables: content of organic carbon, total nitrogen, the C/N ratio, pH(H2O), CECsoil, CECclay, base saturation, total exchangeable bases, aluminum saturation, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), electrical conductivity of saturated paste (ECe), calcium carbonate content, gypsum content, content of sand, silt and clay, content of fragments less than 2 mm, bulk density, total porosity. For soil drainage class, effective soil depth, and available water capacity (-10 to -1500 kPa), however, parameter estimates are presented on a profile basis. The parameter estimates - median values - presented here should be seen as best estimates; possible types and sources of uncertainty are discussed in the report. The data are considered appropriate for exploratory studies at global scale (greater than 1:5 000 000). Note: A more recent assessment, at a resolution of 30arcsec (WISE30sec), is available at: http://data.isric.org/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/dc7b283a-8f19-45e1-aaed-e9bd515119bc

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    The Soil and Terrain database for the Upper Tana River Catchment (version 1.1) (SOTER_UT_v1.1) at scale 1:250,000 was compiled to support the Green Water Credits (GWC) programme by creating a primary SOTER dataset for a hydrology assessment of the basin. The Kenya Soil Survey of the Kenya Agriculture Research Institute(KARI-KSS) and ISRIC-World Soil Information compiled the SOTER_UT dataset ... according to the standard SOTER methodology. The dataset includes both data of the original KENSOTER database (1:1M) for the Upper Tana Catchment and, new SOTER units and soil profile data taken from other, existing soil surveys mainly at scale 100,000 and from more detailed studies. The SOTER database was used for the hydrology assessment of Upper Tana basin using the model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)to quantify the impact of land management practices change in the basin's waterbalance.

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    The aim of the World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) is to serve quality-assessed, georeferenced soil data (point, polygon, and grid) to the international community upon their standardisation and harmonisation. So far, the focus has been on developing procedures for legacy point data with special attention to the selection of soil analytical and physical properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications (e.g. organic carbon, soil pH, soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), coarse fragments ( greater than  2 mm), cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, bulk density, and water holding capacity). Profile data managed in WoSIS were contributed by a wide range of soil data providers; the data have been described, sampled, and analysed according to methods and standards in use in the originating countries. Hence, special attention was paid to measures for soil data quality and the standardisation of soil property definitions, soil property values, and soil analytical method descriptions. At the time of writing, the full WoSIS database contained some 118 400 unique shared soil profiles, of which some 96 000 are georeferenced within defined limits. In total, this corresponds with over 31 million soil records, of which some 20 % have so far been quality-assessed and standardised using the sequential procedure discussed in this paper. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Overall, the data lineage strongly determined which data could be standardised with acceptable confidence in accord with WoSIS procedures, corresponding to over 4 million records for 94 441 profiles. The publicly available data – WoSIS snapshot of July 2016 – are persistently accessible from ISRIC WDC-Soils through doi:10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20160003. Citation: Batjes NH, Ribeiro E, van Oostrum A, Leenaars J, and Mendes de Jesus J 2016. Standardised soil profile data for the world (WoSIS, July 2016 snapshot), doi:10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20160003. Supplement to: Batjes NH, Ribeiro E, van Oostrum A, Leenaars J, Hengl T, and Mendes de Jesus J 2017. WoSIS: Providing standardised soil profile data for the world, Earth System Science Data 9, 1-14, doi:10.5194/essd-9-1-2017 .

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    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Tunisia. It has been derived from the 1:1 million scale Soil and Terrain Database for the country (SOTER_TN, ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based pedotransfer (taxotransfer) procedures. The land surface of Tunisia, covering some 164,150 km2, has been characterized in SOTER_TN using 250 unique SOTER units. Each map unit consists of up to four different soil components. In so far as possible, each soil component has been characterized by a regionally representative profile, selected and classified by national soil experts (see Dijkshoorn et al. 2008). Conversely, in the absence of any measured legacy data, soil components were characterized using synthetic profiles for which only the FAO-Unesco (1988) classification is known. Soil components in SOTER_TN have been characterized using 100 profiles of which 44 are synthetic. The latter represent some 59 per cent of the territory. Comprehensive sets of measured attribute data are not available for most of the measured profiles (56) collated in SOTER_TN, as these were not considered in the source materials. Consequently, to permit modelling, gaps in the soil analytical data have been filled using consistent taxotransfer procedures. Modal soil property estimates necessary to populate the taxotransfer procedure were derived from statistical analyses of soil profiles held in the ISRIC-WISE database ― the current taxotransfer procedure only considers profiles in WISE that: (a) have FAO soil unit names identical to those mapped for Tunisia in SOTER, and (b) originate from regions having similar Köppen climate zones (n= 3566). Property estimates are presented for 18 soil variables by soil unit for fixed depth intervals of 0.2 m to 1 m depth: organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH(H2O), CECsoil, CECclay, base saturation, effective CEC, aluminium saturation, CaCO3 content, gypsum content, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), electrical conductivity (ECe), bulk density, content of sand, silt and clay, content of coarse fragments (less than 2 mm), and volumetric water content (-33 kPa to -1.5 MPa). These attributes have been identified as being useful for agro-ecological zoning, land evaluation, crop growth simulation, modelling of soil carbon stocks and change, and studies of global environmental change. The soil property estimates can be linked to the spatial data (map), using GIS, through the unique SOTER-unit code; database applications should consider the full map unit composition and depth range. The derived data presented here may be used for exploratory assessments at national scale or broader (greater than 1:1 000 000). They should be seen as best estimates based on the current, still limited, selection of soil profiles in SOTER_TN and data clustering procedure ― the type of taxotransfer rules used to fill gaps in the measured data has been flagged to provide an indication of confidence in the derived data

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    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTERLAC database (ver. 2) at scale 1:5 million. This update includes changes in the GIS file, based on the SRTM-DEM derived surface information and supplementary attributes data changes of the pedon database. SOTER forms a part of the ongoing activities of ISRIC, FAO and UNEP to update the world's baseline information on natural resources.The project involved collaboration with national soil institutes from the countries in the region as well as individual experts.