effective cation exchange capacity
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Capacity of the fine earth fraction* to hold exchangeable cations at the pH of the soil (ECEC). Conventionally approximated by summation of exchangeable bases (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+) plus 1 N KCl exchangeable acidity (Al3+ and H+) in acidic soils (cmol(c)/kg). ISRIC is developing a centralized and user–focused server database, known as ISRIC World Soil Information Service (WoSIS). The aims are to: • Safeguard world soil data "as is" • Share soil data (point, polygon, grid) upon their standardization and harmonization • Provide quality-assessed input for a growing range of environmental applications. So far some 400,000 profiles have been imported into WoSIS from disparate soil databases; some 150,000 of have been standardised. The number of measured data for each property varies between proﬁles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Further, in most source data sets, there are fewer data for soil physical as opposed to soil chemical attributes and there are fewer measurements for deeper than for superficial horizons. Generally, limited quality information is associated with the various source data. Special attention has been paid to the standardization of soil analytical method descriptions with focus on the set of soil properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications. Newly developed procedures for the above, that consider the soil property, analytical method and unit of measurement, have been applied to the present set of geo-referenced soil profile data. Gradually, the quality assessed and harmonized "shared" data will be made available to the international community through several webservices. All data managed in WoSIS are handled in conformance with ISRICs data use and citation policy, respecting inherited restrictions. The most recent set of standardized attributes derived from WoSIS are available via WFS. For instructions see Procedures manual 2018, Appendix A, link below (Procedures manual 2018). * The fine earth fraction is generally defined as being less than 2 mm. However, an upper limit of 1 mm was used in the former Soviet Union and its sattelite states (Katchynsky scheme). This has been indicated in the database.
The aim of the World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) is to serve quality-assessed, geo-referenced soil data (point, polygon, and grid) to the international community upon their standardisation and harmonisation. So far, the focus has been on developing procedures for legacy point data with special attention to the selection of soil analytical and physical properties considered in the GlobalSoilMap specifications (e.g. organic carbon, soil pH, soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), coarse fragments ( greater than 2 mm), cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, bulk density, and water holding capacity). Profile data managed in WoSIS were contributed by a wide range of soil data providers; the data have been described, sampled, and analysed according to methods and standards in use in the originating countries. Hence, special attention was paid to measures for soil data quality and the standardisation of soil property definitions, soil property values, and soil analytical method descriptions. At the time of writing, the full WoSIS database contained some 118 400 unique shared soil profiles, of which some 96 000 are geo-referenced within defined limits. In total, this corresponds with over 31 million soil records, of which some 20 % have so far been quality-assessed and standardised using the sequential procedure discussed in this paper. The number of measured data for each property varies between profiles and with depth, generally depending on the purpose of the initial studies. Overall, the data lineage strongly determined which data could be standardised with acceptable confidence in accord with WoSIS procedures, corresponding to over 4 million records for 94 441 profiles. The downloadable ZIP file has the data in TSV (tab separated values). It contains the following files: - ReadmeFirst_WoSIS_2016.pdf (148.1 KB) - wosis_201607_attributes.txt (4.1 KB) - wosis_201607_layers.txt (679.1 MB) - wosis_201607_profiles.txt (8.8 MB) Citation: Batjes NH, Ribeiro E, van Oostrum A, Leenaars J, and Mendes de Jesus J 2016. Standardised soil profile data for the world (WoSIS, July 2016 snapshot), doi:10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20160003. The dataset accompanies the following data paper: Batjes NH, Ribeiro E, van Oostrum A, Leenaars J, Hengl T, and Mendes de Jesus J 2017. WoSIS: Providing standardised soil profile data for the world, Earth System Science Data 9, 1-14, doi:10.5194/essd-9-1-2017.
The World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) provides quality-assessed and standardised soil profile data to support digital soil mapping and environmental applications at broad scale levels. Since the release of the first ‘WoSIS snapshot’, in July 2016, many new soil data were shared with us, registered in the ISRIC data repository, and subsequently standardised in accordance with the licences specified by the data providers. Soil profile data managed in WoSIS were contributed by a wide range of data providers, therefore special attention was paid to measures for soil data quality and the standardisation of soil property definitions, soil property values (and units of measurement), and soil analytical method descriptions. We presently consider the following soil chemical properties (organic carbon, total carbon, total carbonate equivalent, total Nitrogen, Phosphorus (extractable-P, total-P, and P-retention), soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity) and physical properties (soil texture (sand, silt, and clay), bulk density, coarse fragments, and water retention), grouped according to analytical procedures (aggregates) that are operationally comparable. Further, for each profile, we provide the original soil classification (FAO, WRB, USDA, and version) and horizon designations insofar as these have been specified in the source databases. Measures for geographical accuracy (i.e. location) of the point data as well as a first approximation for the uncertainty associated with the operationally defined analytical methods are presented, for possible consideration in digital soil mapping and subsequent earth system modelling. The present snapshot, referred to as ‘WoSIS snapshot - September 2019’, comprises 196,498 geo-referenced profiles originating from 173 countries. They represent over 832 thousand soil layers (or horizons), and over 6 million records. The actual number of observations for each property varies (greatly) between proﬁles and with depth, this generally depending on the objectives of the initial soil sampling programmes. The downloadable ZIP file has the data in TSV (tab separated values) and GeoPackage format. It contains the following files: - ReadmeFirst_WoSIS_2019dec04.pdf (546.7 KB) - wosis_201909.gpkg (2.2 GB, same data as in the tsv) - wosis_201909_attributes.tsv (8.7 KB) - wosis_201909_layers_chemical.tsv (893.5 MB) - wosis_201909_layers_physical.tsv (890.7 MB) - wosis_201909_profiles.tsv (18.8 MB) To read the data in R, please, uncompress the ZIP file and specify the uncompressed folder. Then use read_tsv to read the TSV files, specifying the data types for each column (c = character, i = integer, n = number, d = double, l = logical, f = factor, D = date, T = date time, t = time). setwd("/YourFolder/WoSIS_2019_September/") attributes = readr::read_tsv('wosis_201909_attributes.tsv', col_types='cccciicd') profiles = readr::read_tsv('wosis_201909_profiles.tsv', col_types='icccdddiicccciccccicccc') chemical = readr::read_tsv('wosis_201909_layers_chemical.tsv', col_types='iiddclcdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccc') physical = readr::read_tsv('wosis_201909_layers_physical.tsv', col_types='iiddclcdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccccdccccc') For more detailed instructions on how to read the data with R, please visit https://www.isric.org/accessing-wosis-using-r. Citation: Batjes N.H, Ribeiro E, and van Oostrum A.J.M, 2019. Standardised soil profile data for the world (WoSIS snapshot - September 2019), https://doi.org/10.17027/isric-wdcsoils.20190901. The dataset accompanies the following data paper: Batjes N.H., Ribeiro E., and van Oostrum A.J.M., 2019. Standardised soil profile data to support global mapping and modelling (WoSIS snapshot - 2019). Earth System Science Data, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-299-2020.
This harmonized dataset of derived soil properties for the world (WISE30sec) is comprised of a soil-geographical and a soil attribute component. The GIS dataset was created using the soil map unit delineations of the broad scale Harmonised World Soil Database, version 1.21, with minor corrections, overlaid by a climate zones map (Köppen-Geiger) as co-variate, and soil property estimates derived from analyses of the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database for the respective mapped ‘soil/climate’ combinations. The dataset considers 20 soil properties that are commonly required for global agro-ecological zoning, land evaluation, crop growth simulation, modelling of soil gaseous emissions, and analyses of global environmental change. It presents ‘best’ estimates for: organic carbon content, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, pH(H2O), CECsoil, CECclay, effective CEC, total exchangeable bases (TEB), base saturation, aluminium saturation, calcium carbonate content, gypsum content, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), electrical conductivity, particle size distribution (content of sand, silt and clay), proportion of coarse fragments (less than 2 mm), bulk density, and available water capacity (-33 to -1500 kPa); also the dominant soil drainage class. Soil property estimates are presented for fixed depth intervals of 20 cm up to a depth of 100 cm, respectively of 50 cm between 100 cm to 200 cm (or less when appropriate) for so-called ‘synthetic’ profiles’ (as defined by their ‘soil/climate’ class). The respective soil property estimates were derived from statistical analyses of data for some 21,000 soil profiles managed in a working copy of the ISRIC-WISE database; this was done using an elaborate scheme of taxonomy-based transfer rules complemented with expert-rules that consider the ‘in-pedon’ consistency of the predictions. The type of rules used was flagged to provide an indication of the possible confidence (i.e. lineage) in the derived data. Best estimates for each attribute are given as means and standard deviations (STD), as calculated for the sample populations that remained upon application of a robust data outlier detection scheme. Results of the analyses can be linked to the spatial data through the unique map unit (grid cell) identifier, which is a combination of the soil unit and climate class code. Most map units are comprised of up to ten different components; each of these with their own range of derived soil properties and associated statistical uncertainties. Estimates of global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to 200 cm are presented in the technical documentation as an example of possible application. For citation use: Batjes NH 2016. Harmonised soil property values for broad-scale modelling (WISE30sec) with estimates of global soil carbon stocks. Geoderma 2016(269), 61-68 ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.01.034 )